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[S2E2] Grounded

On Dec. 16, Whiteman published a press release stating that the installation has put an indefinite safety pause on the entirety of the B-2 fleet for inspection. This effectively grounded the aircraft and will prevent them from participating in the previously planned 2023 Rose Parade and Rose Bowl Game flyovers that were scheduled for early January. B-1B Lancer bombers from Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota, will be taking their place.

[S2E2] Grounded


Grounding provides electricity the path of least resistance back to the breaker and exiting to the main ground connection. When there is a fault, if there are no grounded outlets in your home, the easiest path for the electricity is through the metal of any electronic or home appliance you are using. This is dangerous and will cause an electric shock.

2-3 prong adapters will come with a small metal grounding prong attached to them. The prong is a square shaped piece of metal with a circle in the middle. This grounding prong is attached so you can connect your adapter to the grounding source. All you do is install the outlet cover plate screw through the hole in the metal ground pin and your adapter will become grounded.

When is this not true? If your outlet is not grounded your adapter will not be grounded, even if installed properly. There is a tool you can purchase to test your electrical outlets and determine if they are grounded or not.

When you start testing outlets check for any cracked, broken or damaged outlets and have them replaced. If cords and plugs start to hang or fall from your outlet that means it needs to be replaced. If you have tested your outlets and found they are not grounded, we recommend you contact a certified electrician to help you install and make the necessary updates. One option you have is to install GFCI outlets which will detect any faults, like water for example, and avoid shocking you by shutting off the power. GFCI will trip the circuit when necessary, avoiding electrocution.

2-3 prong adapters can be safe if grounded and used properly, however, they might not provide the best function. If you own a home with all 2-prong outlets it is not likely you will move the adapters around uninstalling and reinstalling them as you need to plug things in and out of your outlets. It can be annoying to unscrew and move the adapter every time you need to move it around your house. Another problem is being able to use multiple outlets on one plate, as the adapters can be bulky and may not allow you to use multiple adapters properly or at all on one outlet plate.

NEVER remove the ground pin of a 3-prong plug to fit into a 2-prong outlet always have the outlet changed to match the plug. Removing the ground pin from an adapter or using ungrounded outlets can lead to a fire, shock, or even worse.

The previous three sections of Lesson 2 discussed the three common methods of charging - charging by friction, charging by induction, and charging by conduction. A discussion of charging would not be complete without a discussion of uncharging. Objects with an excess of charge - either positive or negative - can have this charge removed by a process known as grounding. Grounding is the process of removing the excess charge on an object by means of the transfer of electrons between it and another object of substantial size. When a charged object is grounded, the excess charge is balanced by the transfer of electrons between the charged object and a ground. A ground is simply an object that serves as a seemingly infinite reservoir of electrons; the ground is capable of transferring electrons to or receiving electrons from a charged object in order to neutralize that object. In this last section of Lesson 2, the process of grounding will be discussed.

Any object can be grounded provided that the charged atoms of that object have a conducting pathway between the atoms and the ground. A common lab activity involves taping two straws to a charged aluminum plate. One straw is covered with aluminum foil and the other straw is bare plastic. When the aluminum-covered straw is touched, the aluminum plate loses its charge. It is grounded by means of the movement of electrons from the ground to the aluminum plate. When the plastic straw is touched, grounding does not occur. The plastic serves as an insulator and prevents the flow of electrons from the ground to the aluminum plate. Grounding requires a conducting pathway between the ground and the object to be grounded. Electrons will travel along that pathway.

A study based on grounded theory is likely to begin with a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data. As researchers review the data collected, ideas or concepts become apparent to the researchers. These ideas/concepts are said to "emerge" from the data. The researchers tag those ideas/concepts with codes that succinctly summarize the ideas/concepts. As more data are collected and re-reviewed, codes can be grouped into higher-level concepts and then into categories. These categories become the basis of a hypothesis or a new theory. Thus, grounded theory is quite different from the traditional scientific model of research, where the researcher chooses an existing theoretical framework, develops one or more hypotheses derived from that framework, and only then collects data for the purpose of assessing the validity of the hypotheses.[4]

While collaborating on research on dying hospital patients, Glaser and Strauss developed the constant comparative method which later became known as the grounded theory method. They summarized their research in the book Awareness of Dying, which was published in 1965. Glaser and Strauss went on to describe their method in more detail in their 1967 book, The Discovery of Grounded Theory.[7] The three aims of the book were to:

A turning point in the acceptance of the theory came after the publication of Awareness of Dying. Their work on dying helped establish the influence of grounded theory in medical sociology, psychology, and psychiatry.[3][7] From its beginnings, grounded theory methods have become more prominent in fields as diverse as drama, management, manufacturing, and education.[8]

Grounded theory combines traditions in positivist philosophy, general sociology, and, particularly, the symbolic interactionist branch of sociology. According to Ralph, Birks and Chapman,[9] grounded theory is "methodologically dynamic"[7] in the sense that, rather than being a complete methodology, grounded theory provides a means of constructing methods to better understand situations humans find themselves in.

Glaser had a background in positivism, which helped him develop a system of labeling for the purpose of coding study participants' qualitative responses. He recognized the importance of systematic analysis for qualitative research. He thus helped ensure that grounded theory require the generation of codes, categories, and properties.[10]

According to Glaser, the strategy of grounded theory is to interpret personal meaning in the context of social interaction.[11] The grounded theory system studies "the interrelationship between meaning in the perception of the subjects and their action".[12]

Grounded theory constructs symbolic codes based on categories emerging from recorded qualitative data. The idea is to allow grounded theory methods to help us better understand the phenomenal world of individuals.[10] According to Milliken and Schreiber, another of the grounded theorist's tasks is to understand the socially-shared meanings that underlie individuals' behaviors and the reality of the participants being studied.[10]

Grounded theory provides methods for generating hypotheses from qualitative data. After hypotheses are generated, it is up to other researchers to attempt to sustain or reject those hypotheses. Questions asked by the qualitative researcher employing grounded theory include "What is going on?" and "What is the main problem of the participants, and how are they trying to solve it?"

Researchers using grounded theory methods do not aim for the "truth." Rather, those researchers try to conceptualize what has been taking place in the lives of study participants. When applying grounded theory methods, the researcher does not formulate hypotheses in advance of data collection as is often the case in traditional research, otherwise the hypotheses would be ungrounded in the data. Hypotheses are supposed to emerge from the data.[13]

A goal of the researcher employing grounded theory methods is that of generating concepts that explain the way people resolve their central concerns regardless of time and place. These concepts organize the ground-level data. The concepts become the building blocks of hypotheses. The hypotheses become the constituents of a theory.

In most behavioral research endeavors, persons or patients are units of analysis, whereas in grounded theory the unit of analysis is the incident.[13] Typically several hundred incidents are analyzed in a grounded theory study because every participant usually reports many incidents. When comparing many incidents in a certain area of study, the emerging concepts and their inter-relationships are paramount. Consequently, grounded theory is a general method that can use any kind of data although grounded theory is most commonly applied to qualitative data.[14][15]

Most researchers oriented toward grounded theory do not apply statistical methods to the qualitative data they collect. The results of grounded theory research are not reported in terms of statistically significant findings although there may be probability statements about the relationship between concepts.[16] Internal validity in its traditional research sense is not an issue in grounded theory. Rather, questions of fit, relevance, workability, and modifiability are more important in grounded theory.[7][17][16] In addition, adherents of grounded theory emphasize a theoretical validity rather than traditional ideas of internal validity or measurement-related validity.[18] Grounded theory adherents are "less charitable when discussing [psychometric] reliability, calling a single method of observation continually yielding an unvarying measurement a quixotic reliability."[18] 041b061a72


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